Intraoperative radiation therapy with the photon radiosurgery system in locally advanced and recurrent rectal cancer: retrospective review of the Cleveland clinic experience
1 Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, T28 9500 Euclid Ave., Cleveland, OH, 44195, USA
2 Department of Colorectal Surgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA
3 Department of Radiation Oncology, Lahey Clinic, Peabody, MA, USA
Radiation Oncology 2012, 7:110 doi:10.1186/1748-717X-7-110Published: 20 July 2012
Patients with locally advanced or recurrent rectal cancer often require multimodality treatment. Intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) is a focal approach which aims to improve local control.
We retrospectively reviewed 42 patients treated with IORT following definitive resection of a locally advanced or recurrent rectal cancer from 2000–2009. All patients were treated with the Intrabeam® Photon Radiosurgery System (PRS). A dose of 5 Gy was prescribed to a depth of 1 cm (surface dose range: 13.4-23.1, median: 14.4 Gy). Median survival times were calculated using Kaplan-Meier analysis.
Of 42 patients, 32 had recurrent disease (76%) while 10 had locally advanced disease (24%). Eighteen patients (43%) had tumors fixed to the sidewall. Margins were positive in 19 patients (45%). Median follow-up after IORT was 22 months (range 0.2-101). Median survival time after IORT was 34 months. The 3-year overall survival rate was 49% (43% for recurrent and 65% for locally advanced patients). Local recurrence was evaluable in 34 patients, of whom 32% failed. The 1-year local recurrence rate was 16%. Distant metastasis was evaluable in 30 patients, of whom 60% failed. The 1-year distant metastasis rate was 32%. No intraoperative complications were attributed to IORT. Median duration of IORT was 35 minutes (range: 14–39). Median discharge time after surgery was 7 days (range: 2–59). Hydronephrosis after IORT occurred in 10 patients (24%), 7 of whom had documented concomitant disease recurrence.
The Intrabeam® PRS appears to be a safe technique for delivering IORT in rectal cancer patients. IORT with PRS marginally increased operative time, and did not appear to prolong hospitalization. Our rates of long-term toxicity, local recurrence, and survival rates compare favorably with published reports of IORT delivery with other methods.