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Open Access Highly Accessed Research

4D treatment planning for scanned ion beams

Christoph Bert* and Eike Rietzel

Author Affiliations

Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Abteilung Biophysik, Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt, Germany

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Radiation Oncology 2007, 2:24  doi:10.1186/1748-717X-2-24

Published: 3 July 2007


At Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI) more than 330 patients have been treated with scanned carbon ion beams in a pilot project. To date, only stationary tumors have been treated. In the presence of motion, scanned ion beam therapy is not yet possible because of interplay effects between scanned beam and target motion which can cause severe mis-dosage. We have started a project to treat tumors that are subject to respiratory motion. A prototype beam application system for target tracking with the scanned pencil beam has been developed and commissioned.

To facilitate treatment planning for tumors that are subject to organ motion, we have extended our standard treatment planning system TRiP to full 4D functionality. The 4D version of TRiP allows to calculate dose distributions in the presence of motion. Furthermore, for motion mitigation techniques tracking, gating, rescanning, and internal margins optimization of treatment parameters has been implemented. 4D calculations are based on 4D computed tomography data, deformable registration maps, organ motion traces, and beam scanning parameters.

We describe the methods of our 4D treatment planning approach and demonstrate functionality of the system for phantom as well as patient data.